Bird Flu Fact Sheet Part 2
2002 - LPAI H5N1 antibodies were detected in turkeys in Michigan but the virus could not be isolated; therefore this detection could not be confirmed.
2005 - LPAI H5N1 was detected in ducks in Manitoba, Canada.
2006 - LPAI H5N1 was confirmed in two Michigan mute swans sampled as part of USDA’s expanded avian influenza surveillance.
In the past, there was no requirement for reporting or tracking LPAI H5 or H7 detections in wild birds so states and universities tested wild bird samples independently of USDA. Because of this, the above list of previous detections might not be all inclusive of past LPAI H5N1 detections. However, the World Organization for Animal Health (OIE) recently changed its requirement of reporting detections of avian influenza. Effective in 2006, all confirmed LPAI H5 and H7 AI subtypes must be reported to the OIE because of their potential to mutate into highly pathogenic strains. Therefore, USDA now tracks these detections in wild birds, backyard flocks, commercial flocks and live bird markets.
HPAI, or “high path” AI, spreads rapidly and is often fatal to chickens and turkeys. This includes HPAI H5N1. Millions of birds have died in countries where HPAI H5N1 has been detected. This virus has also infected people, most of whom have had direct contact with infected birds.
HPAI H5N1 has not been detected in the United States. However, other strains of HPAI have been detected and eradicated three times in the United States: in 1924, 1983 and 2004. No significant human illness resulted from these outbreaks.
The 1924 HPAI H7 outbreak was contained and eradicated in East Coast live bird markets.
In 2004, USDA confirmed an HPAI H5N2 outbreak in chickens in Texas. The disease was quickly eradicated thanks to close coordination and cooperation between USDA and State, local, and industry leaders.Bird Flu